Avionics or Aviation Electronics
The electronic systems and subsystems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft are generally referred to as Avionics or Aviation Electronics. Avionic systems or subsystems broadly include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems, and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to perform individual functions; from a searchlight for a police helicopter to a complicated tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.
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Various systems and subsystems used in avionics:
Communications is the connection between the flight deck and the ground, and the flight deck to the passengers. On‑board communications are provided by public-address systems and aircraft intercoms.
Air navigation determines the position and direction of the aircraft on or above the surface of the Earth. Navigation systems calculate the position automatically and display it to the flight crew on moving map displays.
A modern day cockpit is known as a “glass cockpit” that simplifies aircraft operation and navigation, and allows pilots to focus only on the most pertinent information. An aircraft cockpit features electronic (digital) flight instrument management display systems.
- Aircraft flight-control system
Aircraft flight control systems are in place to reduce pilot error and workload at landing or takeoff
- Collision-avoidance systems
Almost all aircrafts uses traffic alert and collision avoidance systems (TCAS) which detects the location of all nearby aircrafts, and provides instructions for avoiding midair collision. Such systems are a supplement to air traffic control. Other systems used are controlled flight into terrain (CFIT), ground-proximity warning systems (GPWS) and terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)
- Flight recorders
Commercial aircraft cockpit data recorders, commonly known as "black boxes", store flight information and audio from the cockpit.
- Weather systems
Weather systems such as weather radar and lightning detectors enables a pilot effectively guide an aircraft flying in less than ideal conditions such as; at night or in inclement meteorological conditions, where it is not possible for pilots to see the weather ahead.
- Aircraft management systems
Modern day avionics is rapidly progressing towards a centralized control of the multiple complex systems fitted to aircraft, including engine monitoring and management. Integration of Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) with aircraft management computers give maintainers early warnings of components that will need replacement